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Posts Tagged ‘Old Testament’

In today’s collect, we pray to God, “that in the last day, when he shall come again in his glorious majesty to judge both the quick and the dead, we may rise to the life immortal….”

+ In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

 

“Preparing for Death”

I remember watching my father breathe his last breath and literally expire.  One minute my father lay sick, and the next minute his body lay dead.  Right before was the last minute of my life with him, and right after was the first minute of my life without him.

Anguish washed over my soul.  I did not know how to breathe without him in my life; I did not know how to eat, sleep, or go to school without his presence.  But I learned.  And learning how to live my life without him was horrible beyond description.

 

We fear death.  We fear death because in dying we leave this way of existence and head into another way of existence, a way which we know nothing about by personal experience.

We fear death because we have seen others die.  We continue on, and they apparently do not.  We wish to continue on, even if our current life is miserable.  We instinctively cherish our own lives and do not want to give them up.

We fear death because death comes when the body sustains irreparable damage by accident, disease, or age.  All three are deeply ugly in our sight.  We shudder when we imagine ourselves receiving damage from a horrible accident, or succumbing to a deadly disease, or wasting away in our elder infirmity.  We would rather live in our youthful bodies, or failing that, our bodies as we currently have them.

We fear death because we naturally perceive that death is contrary to the created order of things.  Why would God create us if we were to die?  God Incarnate, Christ Himself cried when He beheld the dead body of His friend Lazarus.  If God who overcomes death cries at death, we who cannot overcome death certainly quail in its presence.

 

Death is one of the essential facts of Creation’s brokenness.  The other is sin, intimately related to death.

In Genesis, we read that “God created the heaven and the earth.”  And after each day of Creation, “God saw that it was good.”  Except on the last day, when “God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness.”  On that sixth day, “God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good.”

So the human race is the capstone upon Creation, that finishing part that made it “very good” in God’s sight.  We were to live with God for all eternity in the Garden.  Possessing both body and soul, we were to walk with God and enjoy his immediate and direct presence.

But our ancestors broke our communion with God when they defied him and sought to live in power and glory without him, partaking of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.  And lest they stretched forth their hands and partake of the Tree of Life, God expelled them from the Garden.

Before he expelled them, God cursed us, saying, “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.”

So it is that death is an unnatural state brought upon by Man’s Fall into sin.  It is necessarily related to sin.  Sin brought death into the world of men.  The only way to remedy death is by remedying sin.

 

Death is a miserable predicament.  Death breaks asunder that which God created to be one.  We are meant to be whole, body and soul.  Death is like unto divorce, which rips apart that which God has joined together.  Once God has put these things together into one essential and holy thing, it is against nature and God to destroy it.  Thus, death is an abomination by its nature and by its disobedience to God’s will.

We brought upon ourselves this death, this destruction.  By following their will instead of God’s will, Adam and Eve chose to destroy themselves.  They didn’t know what they were getting into, but out of their stupid lust they went and wrecked what God had created.

And we are no better than they were.  You and I are guilty of this sin.  We have caused our own deaths.  Even the best of us “have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;”  By thinking that our ways are better than God’s ways, we stray from him.  God is the creator, nurturer, and sustainer of life; yet we think that we can create, nurture, and sustain ourselves away from him.  Each one of us has earned his own death.

 

So from the time of Adam and Eve until the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, death reigned in the lives of men without any sure remedy.  But God did not leave men alone.  The Patriarchs spoke with God personally, and he guided them.  God gave the Law through Moses to Israel.  God sent the Prophets to preach to Israel.

Then, as St. Paul wrote in Galatians iv.4:  “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman ….”  Christ became Man, uniting the fulness of divinity and the fulness of humanity in one holy Person.  St. Paul also wrote in Romans xiv.9, “For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.”

We need not die like those without hope.  Christ took on our mortal human nature and died.  God the Father sent God the Son into the world as the Christ, the Messiah, the Savior of the world.  And He conquered death.  But He conquered death in a most interesting way:  Christ conquered death by dying Himself.  He apparently yielded to sin and death.

But no!  Christ rose from the grave, defeating death and sin.  In Christ, we are victorious over the grave.  The grave has claimed the life of almost every man who ever lived, save only Enos and Elijah in the Old Testament.  Christ has destroyed the hold of the grave over us.  Yet we must enter the grave just like our Lord Christ did.  Each of us will die, but for those who are counted among the redeemed of the Lord, we will live with God for all eternity.

 

So, given that each of us must die unless the Lord returns first, it obviously follows that we must prepare for our deaths.  I say obviously, but sometimes it doesn’t seem obvious at all.  I want to forget that I will die, my body will rot, and my soul will flee.  I want to live my life blissfully ignoring this obvious fact of my life.  I want to ignore it because I want to do whatever I want whenever I want.  I want to dictate the terms of my life to God, just like Adam and Eve did, just you do, just like we all do.

This is wrong.  But we still do it.  So, the first thing we must do to prepare for our inevitable end is to think upon our death each and every day.  This is called memento mori.  Some will object that this is morbid and sad.  To this the Church answers that the only way to life everlasting is through faith in Christ, and that means that we must think on our death and on our Savior.  So first, remember that you will die.

Secondly, we must not only remember that we will die but have faith in Christ and repent of our sins.  The minimum duty of Churchmen, the Six Duties of Churchmen, are not only our least duty but also our saving path.

We must attend Mass each and every Sunday and Holy Day of Obligation.  We must receive the Body and Blood of Christ at least three times a year, one of those times being during Christmastide.  We must tithe, fast, and keep the Church’s rules for sexual relations.  And we must keep our consciences clean.  These tidily fall into three sections for preparing ourselves for Heaven.

First, we must focus upon the objective worship of Christ in the Mass.  We each subjectively worship Christ in many parts of our lives, such as holy thoughts, devout feelings, and inspired sharing.  But Christ gave us His Body and Blood to partake of it, not to ignore it.  When we join ourselves with Christ’s offering of Himself to the Father, we mystically join together with Christ.  A woman who has done this reverently for seventy years is better prepared to meet Christ’s Judgement than a man who mostly forgets to show up to worship.

Second, tithing, fasting, and keeping the Church’s Law of Marriage help us live our lives in the moral way Christ would have us live them.  We ought to be generous, loving, patient, self-sacrificing, and treat our selves and other people’s selves in holiness and godliness.  If we were to tithe, fast, and keep ourselves sexually as we are supposed to while worshipping God and keeping our consciences pure, then we would find ourselves moving in the right direction to God, thus preparing for our judgement.

Third, we must keep our consciences pure.  On the one hand, we must avoid sin and eagerly seek after righteousness.  On the other hand, we must confess our sins.  Thus we repent, or turn away from, our sins.  We should privately tell God each day what we have done wrong, our firm resolution to avoid doing that again, and asking him for forgiveness.  We also can assist our devotion at Mass by remembering our sins and earnestly saying the confession with these sins on our hearts.  We can also come to me or another priest and confess our sins in the Sacrament of Penance.

When our last hour comes, our soul will be brutally torn away from our body.  Satan and the wicked demons will assail us at that hour to tempt us away from Christ with thoughts that He cannot save us, that our sins are more than He can forgive, and that we have no need of Christ at all.  Although our guardian angel and patron saints will powerfully intercede for us at that moment, the singularly best way for us to prepare for the torment and temptation of our death is to be strong in prayer and pure in soul.  And that requires preparation.

 

Advent is upon us.  Holy Church has for many centuries preached on death this very Sunday, which is most proper for helping us prepare for Christ’s return or our death, whichever comes first.

This Advent, I urge you to prepare for the inevitable fate you face.  I love you as my dear children.  I want each and every one of you to prosper in the loving-kindness of Jesus Christ our Lord.  I want each and every one of you to live with each other forever in God’s Kingdom.  I want to enjoy your presence forever before God our Father in the Holy Ghost.

With these wishes of love and peace and enjoying you as you were made by our Lord God, I ask you this week to try at least one of two things.  First, thoughtfully make a list of your sins and then reverently confess them to Christ either with the prayer of confession in the Prayer Book or in the Sacrament of Confession.  Second, pick your most intractable or hardest to control sin and try very hard to confess and turn from it every day this week.

The best way to prepare is to exercise.  The best way to prepare for a spiritual struggle is spiritual exercise.  Try at least one of these confessions of sin this week and prepare to meet your maker.  If you earnestly try, you will find yourself in better shape to be judged by Christ.

 

“that in the last day, when he shall come again in his glorious majesty to judge both the quick and the dead, we may rise to the life immortal….”

+ In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

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“Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word.”

+ In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

 

The Feast of the Annunciation is popularly called “Lady Day”, although it is a feast of our Lord.  The date derives from an ancient idea, that you died on the day of your conception.  Through figuring, early Christians thought that Christ died on March 25th, which meant His incarnation took place on March 25th.  This led to December 25th as His birthday and to June 24th as the date of the conception and death of St. John Baptist.  Despite early medieval attempts to move the feast outside of Lent, the original date prevailed.

From 1066 to 1752, the English held March 25th as New Year’s Day.  Blessed Richard Hooker in his Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity during Elizabethan times wrote, “We begin therefore our ecclesiastical year with the glorious annunciation of his birth by angelical embassage.”  For nearly 700 years, New Year’s Day was today.  Can you imagine?

 

Our Lady was a woman amongst men, poor amongst powerful, young amongst those wizened in years, and unmarried amongst married.  She was faithful, but she was the least of the Jews.  And yet, through her faithfulness and obedience to God, she becomes the greatest of all people, men or women, who have ever lived who were not God Incarnate.

St. Gabriel tells her that God has “highly favored” her amongst all other people.  You see, God heaps blessings on those the world despises.  We see with the eyes of this world, of this culture, and yet God despises our order and our values except insofar as they conform to him.  God blesses those whom he finds worthy and not those whom the world bathes with awards, treasure, and honor.  “Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.” says Christ.  And again He says, “Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven.”  And in the Old Testament, Isaiah lv.9:  “For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.”

St. Mary’s response in great faith made her in the Holy Ghost a vessel through which God the Father poured God the Son into the world.  The Blessed Virgin, though a creature, though our sister through Adam and Eve, became a vital and critically important part of God’s salvation of all the world and all mankind.  We owe a great debt of thanks to her, but she gave it all up to God, and she would have us give it all up to God.  When we submit ourselves to our loving and almighty God, the greatest things in Heaven and Earth can happen.  Again and again, we see in Sacred Scripture God raising up men and women to fulfill his righteous will amongst us.  Since we are created in God’s image and redeemed by God’s Son, we are important.  As obedient to God’s will, we act vitally important.

 

The Blessed Virgin’s obedience did not lead to happiness unbounded.  Remember her mourning at the Cross?  Remember St. Simeon in St. Luke ii.35 prophesying, “Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also”?  She gave birth, not in the inn, but in the stables.  They could only afford the sacrifice of the poor when they presented Christ to the Temple.  She and Joseph fled with Christ to Egypt to save His life.  She saw the priests and scribes conspire to kill Him.  And yes, she was there at Pentecost as well.  She lived a blessed life, but she lived neither a sumptuous or easy life.

We think that God’s blessing will bring prosperity and joy, but often God’s blessing brings hard, difficult, and painful work.  Death and suffering accompany us on the journey Godward.

Those with easy lives might think they have gotten away with a well-lived life, when they have done nothing.  Those who have faced an uphill battle through trial and tribulation may cry out for a rest, but may indeed have won a crown.

And note that heavenly visits inspire fear and wonder.  We want to see an angel to comfort us and to strengthen our faith, but indeed we may cower in fear upon the sight of one.  We pray for divine guidance, but find that truly divine guidance will lead us into danger and out of worldly prosperity.  Our simple earthly minds cannot fathom nor comprehend the immense and profound wonder that a heavenly being such as St. Gabriel would have upon us.

Never doubt the courage of the Virgin when she placed herself into God’s hands during the visit by the angel.  Such an overwhelming and scary experience for a young woman!  But perhaps this is what our Lord meant when He said that we had to become as little children to enter into the Kingdom of God.  He would have us remain innocent and open to fantastic experience, not hardened and jaded like we had earned every year of our life through hard work and bitter disappointment.

And if anything can happen, then what is next?  Probably not what we expect.  The faithful Christian should have a heart like St. Mary, open to the unbelievable possibilities of Almighty God, our Heavenly Father.  We must truly believe that the Holy Ghost can do all things.  We must truly believe that Christ is one of us and lived a life amongst us.  We must believe in miracles and goodness and holiness and not insist upon having things our way.

 

As we are all brothers of Christ through adoption, and since we enter into eternal life through Christ, so we may faithfully and truly say that the Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of us all.  Christ saying to St. John from the Cross, “behold your mother”, and saying to his mother from the Cross, “behold your son”, is the symbol of this truth.

Moreover, St. Mary had the Lord inside of her just as the Messiah was within Israel, and Christ came forth from His mother just as out of Israel the Messiah came forth.

As the Blessed Virgin Mary is our mother and as she is a type of Israel, so she is a type of Holy Church.  Through our mother Holy Church, we are birthed into new life.  Thus Christians may call St. Mary our mother as well.  It is as St. Mary as mother of us who through obedience allowed salvation into the world through Christ flips the work of Eve, who though mother of us all, allowed sin into the world through Adam.

 

In the lady parts of our Lady, God the Son became Incarnate Body and Blood, anticipating and prefiguring how this bread and wine shall become the Body and Blood of Christ for us to eat and drink on God’s altar in just a few minutes.  St. John Baptist leapt in his mother’s womb when he encountered our Lord Jesus in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary.  So we bow and kneel before Christ in His Blessed Sacrament of the Altar.  And the Blessed Virgin helped make it happen.

If you love Jesus, you have to love His mama, for He certainly did.  If you would love like Christ loves, you would love the Blessed Virgin Mary.  But if somehow you love the Blessed Virgin more than Christ, she would be the first one to correct you and point you to her Son, for she followed Him, and obeyed Him, and was there at the Cross and on Pentecost.

 

The Blessed Virgin Mary shows us that God chooses the weak of this world, shows us that following God can be costly, and shows us that she is our mother as well as our sister.  But most importantly, the Blessed Virgin is the model for Christian discipleship.

“Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word.” This is the model of the humble and faithful Christian’s prayer, placing himself under God’s will.

Father Massey Shepherd said that St. Mary is the “perfect example of a humble acceptance of God’s favor and a ready and trusting obedience to His will.  Here, indeed, one witnesses in purest form the self-giving response of a human life to the redeeming purpose of God.”

St. Mary is told she will be the mother of the Son of the Highest, and yet she makes no grand claims.  She calls herself handmaiden, a servant, chosen by another.  How often does God give us something small and we claim something big?  How often do we boast of our station or wealth or knowledge or capabilities when it all came from our good God and we earned so very little of it?  Give God the glory!  We should learn from her.

And then she wishes that God’s will be done, foreshadowing Christ’s teaching of that in his prayer, “Thy will be done.”  The Blessed Virgin teaches us how to behave before our Lord God.  She is the prototypical Christian, our mother by example if our sister by birth.

St. Mary’s “yes”, as well as our “yes”, is only the beginning of a marvelous and gracious journey of faith.  In the Gospel and the mission of the Church, each moment opens with opportunities to follow Christ, obey God, and spread the Gospel.  Like St. Mary, our obedience to God should form our essential identity in Christ.

What St. Mary started at home one day by emptying herself to God before St. Gabriel culminated in Christ emptying Himself on the hard wood of the Cross that dark day upon the hilltop.  We empty ourselves for God, not negotiating and wheedling with him about what pet trifles we might keep.  Jesus says in St. Luke’s Gospel, “No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God.”

We surrender all to God.  We obey God.  We follow God.  We empty ourselves for God.  God is all we have, for we and all we have come from him.

 

“Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word.”

+ In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

 

 

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“Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word: for mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.”

+ In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

 

How old are we?  We value our history, yet we often forget how old we really are.  We think of the past ten years here and the founding of this parish thirty-two years ago.  We think of the independence of the Episcopal Church in the late Eighteenth Century and the first Mass at Jamestown in the early Seventeenth Century.  We think of the Reformation, the Great Schism, the Ecumenical Councils, and the early Church.

But we go much further back.  The Temple Christ was presented in was built in 516 B.C., twenty-five hundred years ago, and there had been another Temple before that, and the Law had been given centuries before that.  We and our spiritual ancestors have been worshipping the Lord our God for well over three thousand years.

Christians value what is old.  The blessing of candles was added to our celebration of this feast a full thousand years ago.  The events of this feast described in the Gospel happened two thousand years ago.  Both Simeon and Anna were quite elderly and waited for many years to behold the Christ.  Christ was presented to the Temple and the Blessed Virgin Mary was purified according to the ancient Law of Moses.

We do not throw away our old customs and people here.  Indeed, our young are expected to follow in the elder ways, just like our older folk are.  We are not interested in changing with the times.  We are interested in remaining faithful to our Lord.  Christ, Who transformed history and the world by coming into the world, submitted Himself to Law and the customs of the Chosen People again and again.  As it says in Proverbs xxii.28:  “Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set.”

It is from this deep connection to the goodness and glory of God shining in the past that we take the light of Christ out into the world today.

When you drive a golf ball, hit a hockey puck, or throw a football, you bring your club, your stick, your arm back to whip it forward for great effect.  We draw strength from the past as we live the Gospel in this present day.  We join in with the prophets, patriarchs, and saints of more than three thousand years when we proclaim Holy Scripture, live in loving-kindness, and show forth the light of Christ into the world right outside those red doors.

 

This connection with the past is a particularly Jewish and Christian concern, for ours is a religion of history.  History doesn’t matter with the moon god or Buddha.  Christ was born on a particular day and presented to the Temple forty days afterward.  History matters for us.

The earliest Christian heretic, Marcion, made the first formal canon of Scripture, in which he cut out the entire Old Testament and most of the New.  Marcion’s heresy held that the God of the Old Testament was not the God of the New Testament.

But the Son of God was present at the creation of the world.  The Son of God sent the God the Holy Ghost to speak to the prophets.  The Son of God was born a baby in Bethlehem and was given the name Jesus.  Marcion taught some kind of religion, but that religion was not Christianity.

For Christianity is the renewal of the Jewish religion for all people, under the Messiah, the Christ.  As St. Paul says in Galatians iv.4:  Christ was “born of a woman, born under the law, that he might redeem those under the law.”  St. Paul, who is the Apostle to the Gentiles, was very clear that Christ came first for the Jews.  Indeed, Christ Himself stated this exact same thing.

Christ completes the Law, and the New Covenant completes the Old.  If you look in the Prayer Book or your bulletin, you will see that this feast is called both the Presentation and the Purification.

The Purification and the Presentation both derive from the birth of Christ by the Blessed Virgin Mary, a singular act of our salvation intimately involving the two greatest figures of our salvation.  And both of them obey the Law of Moses in the circumcision, the presentation, and the purification.  Christ and St. Mary both fulfill the Law.  They are both good Jews.

 

Christ fulfilled all righteousness when His Body, the new temple, was presented into the old Temple.  We have absolutely 100% continuity with the Jews of old.  By our entrance into the death and resurrection of Christ in Holy Baptism, we are joined with Christ and made members of Him.  We, who are not born Jews and part of the Old Covenant, are joined with Christ our Lord and made, in effect, into Jews through Him.

Through the outward cultic sacrifices of the Temple, we who are joined with Christ now offer spiritual sacrifices through the new Temple, His Body.  As you have seen today, we continue this cultic presence of the Old Testament with our Christian worship which includes incense, priests, Scripture readings, and the Ten Commandments.

Christ’s first desire was to save the Jews.  Saving the Gentiles is secondary, especially in the sense that it relies upon God’s redeeming work in Israel.  God’s salvation of Israel prepares and spills over graciously into the Gentile part of humanity.  Salvation comes through the Jews.  Any denial of this perverts the ministry of Christ into something unscriptural and unchristian, a thing for anti-Semites and the heretic Marcion.

We who are not born into the covenant of Israel are not God’s second choice, exactly, but it was not through us that God wrought salvation in our fallen world.  It is through the Jews that salvation has come to us all.

Have you been a staunch member of this parish a long time?  Are you of a good family?  Are you among the wealthy?  Know that no matter how superior your social position is in this society at large or in this parish in particular, you are a sojourner, an immigrant, a newcomer; you are an undeserving recipient of God’s free grace.  As the old saying goes, we are beggars telling other beggars where to find a meal.  God raised up Israel to be set apart from all the rest of the world, and from the tribe of Judah did God the Father send His only-begotten Son of God to be born of a daughter of Jacob, Mary Ever-Virgin.  Through the Jews did salvation come, and from the Jews has come “a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel”.

 

We who are Baptized have died and risen again in Christ.  We are no longer part of the world.  God calls us out of the world.  As Christians, we are part of something far grander than the things of this world.  Christ has gone before us and made us citizens of Heaven.  This world is crumbling away, and there is no stopping it.  We have been saved from it, and we are being saved from it.

We read in Isaiah viii.15:  “And many among them shall stumble, and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken.”  Christ will be – and was – and yet remains – “unto the Jews a stumblingblock, and unto the Greeks foolishness”.  Christ divides men one from another.  He says in St. Matthew x.34:  “For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law.”

This sinful world is a tough place.  But God is tougher.  God the Son can take all the blasphemies and humiliations we can give Him and still defeat sin and death.  This Presentation of Christ to the Temple, along with the Circumcision and the finding of the boy Christ in the Temple, shows that there is more to Christ’s early life than angels and animals and mangers.  Today’s feast points us towards Golgotha … and beyond.  In the wisdom of Holy Mother Church, today we grow close to the Pre-Lenten season.

The finest and swankiest people of Israel would have no doubt sagged in dismay if they had known the true nature of the gentle infant carried that day through the streets of Jerusalem.  Years later, those same people and kinds of people shouted “crucify Him” to that same babe in that same city.  Christ upset, literally overturned, the sinful nature of the world.  Those who had grown comfortable in and profited from this fallen world would suffer as a result of the coming salvation.

Christ challenges the prejudices of those who rule this world.  Christ’s witness of loving-kindness and obedience to God the Father smells of rebellion to the authorities of this world.  Christ spent much of His ministry on earth with the poor commoners of Judea.  Perhaps He knew them better because God the Son came down from Heaven into a family that had to offer the pauper’s sacrifice of two turtledoves at His Presentation to the Temple.

One Herod killed a region full of little boys to try to suppress Christ’s Advent.  Another Herod decapitated St. John Baptist at a banquet.  The Roman governor Pilate washed his hands clean of Christ.  The rich and powerful and well-heeled of this world did not welcome Christ.  And of course they would not.  They wanted to kill Him.  He was willing to die for them.  That’s the biggest difference in the world.

 

Would we strive for holiness?  Would we love our Lord and each other?  Would we be a light to the world?  Let us reach out to our Lord Christ.  Let us throw ourselves and our brokenness, our alienation, our sinful thoughts, and our wicked acts onto his broken and bruised back and let Him carry us.  Let us change our habits and our ways to fit with the new world of grace and loving-kindness which Christ brings down to us from Heaven.  Let us carry Christ in our hearts out into the world.

 

“Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word: for mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.”

+ In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

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“How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?”

+ In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

 

1.         In the Eighth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, St. Philip meets the Ethiopian Eunuch.  He “heard him read the prophet Esaias, and said, Understandest thou what thou readest?  And he said, How can I, except some man should guide me? And he desired Philip that he would come up and sit with him.”

Reading the Old Testament can be difficult.  Like the Ethiopian eunuch, we need an interpreter.  Merely reading the words of the Hebrew Scriptures is not good enough; we need someone to show us how God is Trinity in the Old Testament as well as the New, to show us how Jesus is prophetically proclaimed in the Old Testament, to show us the unity of the Old Testament with the New.  We must keep in mind that when people in the Gospels and Epistles speak of the Scriptures, they are referring to what we call the Old Testament.

2.         The first Christian heretic was Marcion, a wicked bishop of the second century.  He taught that the God of the Old Testament was not the God of the New Testament.  The God of the New Testament is a god of love and peace and spirit while the God of the Old Testament is a god of vengeance and wrath and physical things.  This directly contradicts what we call the Last Gospel, the Prologue of the Gospel according to St. John:  “In the beginning was the word.”  The Word was there from the beginning, and the Word became flesh in Jesus.  The Old and New Testaments together tell one complete story.

3.         I don’t know about you, but when I was growing up, I loved stories.  I still do.  History was my big thing, the story not only of my family and my country, but of the people of Israel and the creation of the world.  The Indian mounds and other vestiges of our Native Americans were a vivid reminder that things were not now as they had been.  As I grew up, I learned of many other things, like the Viking raids of Europe.  Stories transported me to places very different such as the Arabia of Sinbad and the Japan of the Shoguns.  The world became immense.  And for the most part, I kept my faith in a God who was the Lord of Time and the Lord of all the world; and this same God was the one we worshipped on Sunday at our Methodist Church, often using many of the same words found in our beautiful Prayer Book.

Believing in the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost and thinking about history, the past, also put something else that is immense into my mind:  All the time that is to be.  Seeing as we will live with God for eternity – which is far greater than a very long time – our journeys are only now beginning.  We will live in the New Jerusalem with all the rest of the faithful – some of whom we have loved and have loved us, some of whom we have yet to meet, and others of whom we will be surprised to see – we will live with them and with our Risen and Ascended Lord Jesus for ages to come, without pain or worry, without fear or anxiety, without grief or sorrow.

But to get there, we have to travel through the past and through the time we have left to us here.  And when we travel, we travel with the eternal Word of God, the Son of the Father, our Lord Jesus Christ.

4.         In our Gospel reading today, we see that the Two Great Commandments show how Christ fulfills the Law, and the Psalm reference shows how Christ fulfills the prophets.  The Old Testament prefigures, foreshadows, and points to the New, and the New Testament fulfills, recapitulates, and redeems the Old.

Our Lord, the apostles, and the evangelists use the Old Testament in a different way than the ancient Jews.  Our New Testament Scriptural authorities do not take the literal meaning of the Hebrew Bible; they make an inspired new take on those Scriptures.  Fundamentalists, strict Calvinists, modern skeptical scholars, and others who claim a bare reading of the Hebrew Scriptures are doing something other than what Jesus, St. Paul, and St. John do; they are doing their own thing.  This is an important reason why I am an Anglican Catholic:  We don’t do that here.  Blessed Richard Hooker chastises the Puritans about this very issue of Biblical interpretation in his Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity more than five centuries ago.

As Christians, we should be able to guess what is the main difference between the Old and New Testaments:  Jesus Christ.  All the people who lived before Jesus did not have access to His spiritual Gospel.  When we read of commands to slaughter everyone and to abstain from certain foods in order to be holy, we need to remember that the physical was all they had.  They looked for a righteous warrior king for their Messiah; we have the Prince of Peace as our Christ.  They did not have the options that we have; they had different, harsher rules.

As we read the Old Testament from beginning to end, we see how God progressively and incrementally teaches his people and prepares the way for the fullness of His Advent in the Person of Jesus.  The Law had 613 commandments.  In Psalm 15, David consolidates it to eleven.  Isaiah reduces it to six, Micah to three, Amos to two, and Habakkuk to one.  Then Jesus in our Gospel today tells us the two great commandments, upon which “hang all the law and the prophets.”  The whole Old Testament moves toward and leads to the New Testament.

When we look back at the Old Testament as Christians looking through the eyes of faith, those Scriptures open up to us like they never did for the Jews of old.  The first three verses of Genesis now show the Blessed Trinity:  “1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.”  The prologue of St. John’s Gospel, says:  “1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.”

When we look back with the Gospel in our hearts, we see signs and foreshadowings that God’s chosen people did not fully understand until later.  For instance, the teenaged St. Mary was pregnant with Jesus, who called Himself in St. John’s Gospel the Bread of Life.  The Holy Mother carried the Bread of Life inside of her.  The Ark of the Covenant carried manna sent from heaven to feed the people of Israel in the desert.  Like the Ark, the Blessed Virgin Mary is holy.  But like the Ark, she is not holy because of who or what she is, but by what is contained inside of her.  The Ark is a type of the Blessed Virgin.  The Blessed Virgin is a fulfillment of the Ark of the Covenant.  You could go so far to call her the Ark of the New Covenant.

There are many hard sayings in the Old Testament which we would want to reject unless we looked at them with the understanding that Jesus has come.  To take an example, some modernistic scholars think that you only look at the text in front of you, taking care not to consider the whole of Scripture.  This poses insoluble problems for reading those hard sayings.  Consider the last two verses of Psalm 137:  “O daughter of Babylon, wasted with misery; yea, happy shall he be that rewardeth thee as thou hast served us.  Blessed shall he be that taketh thy children, and throweth them against the stones.”  We look at that and think it is insane.  But each snippet and verse of Scripture is to be understood in relation to the whole of Scripture and to Jesus.  After all, the whole notion of verse and chapter are creations of scholars well after the writing of the Scriptures.  Holy Scripture is to be taken as a whole.  Therefore, one must consider the bashing of babies’ heads as something other than what we immediately think it must be.

I know of at least three faithful responses to reading Psalm 137.  First, we can think that God spoke to people where they were at and not where they were to go, such that revenge and slaying of whole populations was a foreshadowing of purity, but at a level they understood.  Second, we can read these verses in an allegorical manner.  St. Benedict thought that this bit of bashing babies had to do with stopping the little temptations:  “While these temptations are still young, catch hold of them and dash them against Christ.”  Christ, as you may remember, is also called the rock.  Third, we can throw ourselves on our knees before God and say, “Lord, I do not know how you could say this; please help me to understand.”  This is a hard saying, and I for one cannot explain and expound upon each and every hard saying in the Bible.  The Lord’s inspiration is not necessarily identical to what the Psalmist intended to write.  Also consider that the people under the old Law and those who were not Jews did not yet have Jesus to reconcile them to God.  In such a world, killing your enemies had a more immediate consequence than killing your sins, or demons, or your own sinful nature.

You may well ask at this point what proof I have of any of this.  I am up here speaking of interpreting God’s written words for us to “read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest.”  This is important stuff here.  Well, I do not speak on my own authority, but on the authority of the Church and her Scriptures.  Let’s look at today’s Gospel.

“Jesus asked them, saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The son of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?”

The Psalm says, “The LORD said unto my Lord.”  In the Hebrew, these ‘Lords’ were two different words, the lord Jehovah and the lord the king.  Our Authorized Version shows the first ‘lord’ in capital letters and the second ‘lord’ without.  But in the Greek, both are kyrios, or lord.  Jesus takes the new translation and uses it to show that the Messiah is God also.  Jesus Christ Himself takes a new and unfamiliar and unexpected interpretation of the Old Testament to teach the highest Jewish Scriptural authorities about His Advent into the world.  But they, steeped in their old tradition, could not understand or debate Him.  This new interpretation of Jesus is picked up by Ss. Paul and John in Ephesians, Hebrews, and Revelation.

Sometimes interpreting the Old Testament through the New means interpreting the Hebrew through the Greek.  This happens when St. Mary conceives Jesus without knowing a man.  The verse in Isaiah means “young woman” in Hebrew, but it means maiden or virgin in the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint.  Both St. Matthew’s and St. Luke’s Gospels clearly show that the Holy Mother was a virgin when she conceived.  Isaiah’s words in Hebrew would not prove this, but the Septuagint Greek translation of Isaiah does.  The faith has changed over those years from the Garden to the Maccabees in order to prepare the world for the Advent of God’s coming into the world and taking our own flesh as one of us in order to redeem us.  The Garden did not work; the Flood did not work; the Law did not work; the Judges did not work; Saul’s kingship did not work; David’s dynasty did not work in the way expected.  The prophets increasingly show the way from these historical facts of God’s love of first a part and then the whole of mankind.  All of humanity – without any exceptions – is swept up into the Advent of Jesus Christ, Son of God and Son of Man through the Virgin Mary.

 

5.         Brothers and sisters, I encourage you to do four things:

First, stand firm with the ancient teaching of Holy Mother Church against those who teach wrongly, including pop culture caricatures, fundamentalist preachers, and faithless scholars.

Second, read and study the Old Testament, either in Morning Prayer or on your own.

Third, attend Naomi Williams’ Sunday School class before this service at 9:30 in the fellowship hall next door.  She is teaching on I & II Samuel.

Last, set your hearts free and enter fully in this offering of Jesus Christ, Who is “the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever”.

 

“How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?”

+ In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

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